A selection of recent presentations relating to the IRIDA project:

  1. Robert Beiko.  Phylogeography with GenGIS.  3rd EMBO Conference on Visualizing Biological Data (VIZBI 2016).  March 11, 2016;  Heidelberg, Germany.  (Download)
  2. William Hsiao.  IRIDA: Canada’s federated platform for genomic epidemiology. 11th International Meeting on Microbial Epidemiological Markers (IMMEM XI).  Estoril, Portugal. (Download)
  3. Emma Griffiths.  IRIDA’s Genomic Epidemiology Application Ontology (GenEpiO): Genomic, Clinical and Epidemiological Data Standardization and Integration.  11th International Meeting on Microbial Epidemiological Markers (IMMEM XI).  Estoril, Portugal. (Download)
  4. Bhavjinder Dhillon.  Exploring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance using IslandViewer 3.  VanBUG Vancouver Bioinformatics User Group;  October 8, 2015; Vancouver, Canada.  (Download)
  5. Eduardo Taboada.  The Salmonella In Silico Typing Resource (SISTR): Rapid Analysis of Salmonella Draft Genome Sequence Data. 1st ASM Conference on Rapid Next-Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatic Pipelines for Enhanced Molecular Epidemiologic Investigation of Pathogens; September 24-27, 2015;  Washington, D.C., USA
  6. Aaron Petkau.  Phylogenetic reconstruction and outbreak investigation using IRIDA and SNVPhyl. 1st ASM Conference on Rapid Next-Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatic Pipelines for Enhanced Molecular Epidemiologic Investigation of Pathogens; September 24-27, 2015;  Washington, D.C., USA.  (Download)
  7. Fiona Brinkman.  Perspectives on linking internationally – Canada and IRIDA.ca.  FDA GenomeTrakr Meeting; September 23-24 2015; Washington DC, USA.  (Download)
  8. Aaron Petkau. Genomic data management at Canada’s National Microbiology Laboratory with IRIDA and Galaxy. Galaxy Admins Web Meetup; August 20, 2015. (Slides/Video).
  9. Damion Dooley.  Kipper: A software package for sequence database versioning for Galaxy bioinformatics servers.  Bioinformatics Open Source Conference/23rd Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB); July 10-14, 2015; Dublin, Ireland. (Download).
  10. Melanie Courtot.  The IRIDA project: standards for public health genomic epidemiology to improve infectious disease outbreak detection and investigation. 23rd Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB); July 10-14, 2015; Dublin, Ireland.
  11. Aaron Petkau.  IRIDA: A Genomic Epidemiology Platform Built on top of Galaxy.  Galaxy Community Conference 2015; July 8 2015;  United Kingdom. (Download)
  12. Fiona Brinkman. Integrated Rapid Infectious Disease Analysis (IRIDA) for public health.  Scottish National Microbiology Reference Laboratories; June 30, 2015; Scotland.
  13. William Hsiao.  How Can We Make Genomic Epidemiology a Widespread Reality?  Genome Atlantic; June 23, 2015; Halifax, Canada.
  14. Gary Van Domselaar. Quality Assurance of High Throughput Sequencing in the Diagnostic Laboratory.  XVII International Symposium of the World Organization for Animal Health, World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnostician;  June 17, 2015, Saskatoon, Canada.
  15. Robert Beiko.  Microbial genomics for rapid investigation of infectious disease.  Statistical and Computational Analytics for Big Data; June 12, 2015; Halifax, Canada.
  16. William Hsiao. How Can We Make Genomic Epidemiology a Widespread Reality?  BCCDC Grand Rounds; May 26, 2015; Vancouver, Canada.
  17. Fiona Brinkman.  Keynote: “Integrating Bioinformatics Data. Integrating Bioinformatics Communities.   Alberta Bioinformatics Symposium; May 21, 2015; Alberta, Canada.
  18. Gary Van Domselaar.   The use of WGS data for surveillance systems: the Canadian experience.  Global Microbial Identifier Network; May 11-13, 2015;  Beijing, China. (Download)
  19. William Hsiao.  IRIDA: Canada’s federated platform for genomic epidemiology.  ABPHM 2015; May 7, 2015; Cambridge, United Kingdom. (Download)
  20. Melanie Courtot.  Standards for public health genomic epidemiology to improve infectious disease outbreak detection and investigation.  Biocuration 2015; May 23-26, 2015; Beijing, China
  21. Julie Shay.  Genomic island prediction in IslandViewer and the significance of draft genome analysis.  Simon Fraser University Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Graduate Colloquium; April 14, 2015; Burnaby, Canada.
  22. Fiona Brinkman.  IRIDA: Integrated Rapid Infectious Disease Analysis: Transforming public health with bioinformatics.  IRMACS -10th Anniversary; April 10, 2015.  Burnaby, Canada.
  23. Fiona Brinkman. Harnessing the power of bioinformatic platforms.  Big Data – For Heart and Lung Basic, Clinical, and Translational Research Meeting.  March 26, 2015.  Canada.
  24. William Hsiao.  Effective use of ontology for data standardization: an example in molecular epidemiology.  BC Centre for Disease Control; November 18, 2014; Vancouver, Canada.
  25. Fiona Brinkman.  Evolution of microbial pathogens and our microbiome: Implications for biodiversity.  McMaster University; October 27, 2014; Hamilton, Canada.
  26. Fiona Brinkman.  Omic analyses aiding more holistic, sustainable infectious disease control  – and environmental monitoring.  University of Victoria; October 10, 2014; Victoria, Canada.

A selection of recent posters relating to the IRIDA project:

  1. Emma Griffiths, Mélanie Courtot, Damion Dooley, Josh Adam, Franklin Bristow, João A Carriço, Bhavjinder K. Dhillon, Matthew Laird, Thomas Matthews, Aaron Petkau, Geoff Winsor, the IRIDA Ontology Advisory Group, Lynn M Schriml, Eduardo Taboada, Gary Van Domselaar, Morag Graham, Fiona Brinkman and William Hsiao. GenEpiO: The Genomic Epidemiology Application Ontology for the Standardization and Integration of Microbial Genomic, Clinical and Epidemiological Data. Biocuration; April 10-14, 2016; Geneva, Switzerland.
  2. Damion M. Dooley, Aaron J. Petkau, Franklin Bristow, Gary Van Domselaar, William W.L. Hsiao.  A Scripting Language For Standardized Evaluation Of Quality Metrics In Galaxy And Command-line Driven Workflows. Estoril, Portugal.  (Download)
  3. Emma Griffiths, Mélanie Courtot, Damion Dooley, Josh Adam, Franklin Bristow, João A Carriço, Bhavjinder K. Dhillon, Matthew Laird, Thomas Matthews, Aaron Petkau, Geoff Winsor, the IRIDA Ontology Advisory Group, Lynn M Schriml, Eduardo Taboada, Gary Van Domselaar, Morag Graham, Fiona Brinkman and William Hsiao. Needs Assessment and Ontology Development for Integrating Whole Genome Sequencing into Routine Outbreak Investigations. 1st ASM Conference on Rapid Next-Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatic Pipelines for Enhanced Molecular Epidemiologic Investigation of Pathogens; September 24-27, 2015;  Washington, D.C., USA.  (Download)
  4.  Franklin Bristow, Josh Adam, João André Carriço, Mélanie Courtot, Bhavjinder Dhillon, Damion Dooley, Emma Griffiths, Judy Isaac-Renton, Alex Keddy, Peter Kruczkiewicz, Matthew Laird, Andrew MacArthur, Thomas Matthews, Aaron Petkau, Lynn Schriml, Julie Shay, Eduardo Taboada, Patrick Tang, Joel Thiessen, Geoff Winsor, Robert G. Beiko, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar, William Hsiao,The IRIDA Consortium and Fiona Brinkman. A Federated Platform Enabling Richer Genomic Epidemiology Analysis in a Public Health Environment. 1st ASM Conference on Rapid Next-Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatic Pipelines for Enhanced Molecular Epidemiologic Investigation of Pathogens; September 24-27, 2015;  Washington, D.C., USA.  (Download)
  5. Courtot M, Griffiths E, Dooley D, Adam J, Bristow F, Carriço JA, Dhillon B, Laird M, Lo R, Matthews T, Petkau A, Winsor G, Schriml L, Graham M, Van Domselaar G, Brinkman F, and Hsiao W. The IRIDA genomic epidemiology ontology: Standards to improve infectious disease outbreak detection and investigation. Poster presented at: 23rd Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB); July 10-14, 2015; Dublin, Ireland. (Download)
  6. Dooley D, Bristow F, Adam, J, Carriço JA, Courtot M, Dhillon, B, Griffiths E, Isaac-Renton J, Keddy A, Kruczkiewicz P, Laird M, Matthews T, Petkau A, Schriml L, Shay J, Taboada E, Tang P, Thiessen J, Winsor G, Beiko RG, Graham M, Van Domselaar G, Hsiao W, The IRIDA Consortium, and Brinkman F. IRIDA: Canada’s federated platform for genomic epidemiology. Poster presented at: 23rd Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB); July 10-14, 2015; Dublin, Ireland. (Download)
  7. Petkau A, Bristow F, Matthews T, Adam J, Mabon P, Enns E, Cabral J, Thiessen J, Sieffert C, Knox N, Dooley D, Griffiths E, Winsor G, Laird M, Courtot M, Kruczkiewicz P, Keddy A, Beiko RG, Hsiao W, Van Domselaar G, and Brinkman F. IRIDA: A Genomic Epidemiology Platform Built on top of Galaxy. Poster presented at: Galaxy Community Conference 2015; July 6-8, 2015; Norwich, UK. (Download)
  8. Bristow F, Adam, J, Carriço JA, Courtot M, Dhillon, B, Dooley D, Griffiths E, Isaac-Renton J, Keddy A, Kruczkiewicz P, Laird M, Matthews T, Petkau A, Schriml L, Shay J, Taboada E, Tang P, Thiessen J, Winsor G, Beiko RG, Graham M, Van Domselaar G, Hsiao W, The IRIDA Consortium, and Brinkman F. IRIDA: Canada’s federated platform for genomic epidemiology. Poster presented at: The 8th Meeting of the Global Microbial Identifier; May 11-13, 2015; Beijing, China. (Download)
  9. Nasha J, Yoshida C, Miao D, Kruczkiewicz P & Taboada E.  The effect of whole genome sequencing and assembly upon in silico serotyping of Salmonella enterica using the SISTR platform.  Poster presented at: ABPHM 2015; May 6-8, 2015; UK. (Download)
  10. Shay J, Dhillon B, Laird M,  Winsor G, Griffiths E, Berry C, Knox N, Petkau A,Reimer A, Langille M, Van Domselaar G, Brinkman F.  IslandViewer: More Flexible, Integrated Prediction and Visualization of Genomic Islands, Virulence Factors, and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Bacterial Genomes.  Poster presented at Genome BC; May 8, 2015; Vancouver, Canada.  (Download)
  11. Shay J, Dhillon B, Laird M,  Winsor G, Griffiths E, Berry C, Knox N, Petkau A,Reimer A, Langille M, Van Domselaar G, Brinkman F.  IslandViewer: More Flexible, Integrated Prediction and Visualization of Genomic Islands, Virulence Factors, and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Bacterial Genomes.  Poster presented at American Society for Microbiology General Meeting; May 30-Jun 2, 2015; New Orleans, USA.  (Download)
  12. Courtot M, Dooley D, Griffiths E, Adam J, Bristow F, Carriço JA, Dhillon B, Laird M, Matthews T, Petkau A, Silva M, Winsor G, the IRIDA Ontology Advisory Group, Schriml L, Van Domselaar G, Brinkman F, and Hsiao W. IRIDA: Standards for public health genomic epidemiology to improve infections disease outbreak and investigation. Poster presented at: The 8th International Biocuration Conference; April 23-26, 2015; Beijing, China. (Download)
  13. Hsiao W, Bristow F, Matthews T, Adam J, Carriço JA, Courtot M, Dhillon B, Dooley D, Griffiths E, Isaac-Renton J, Keddy A, Kruczkiewicz P, Laird M, Petkau A, Schriml L, Shay J, Taboada E, Tang P, Winsor G, Beiko RG, Graham M, Van Domselaar G, The IRIDA Consortium, and Brinkman F. IRIDA: Canada’s federated platform for genomic epidemiology. Poster presented at: BC Centre for Disease Control Research Week; November 17-21, 2014; Vancouver, Canada. (Download)
  14. Courtot M, Dooley D, Griffiths E, Adam J, Bristow F, Carriço JA, Dhillon B, Laird M, Matthews T, Petkau A, Silva M, Winsor G, The IRIDA Ontology Advisory Group, Schriml L, Van Domselaar G, Brinkman F, Hsiao W. Design and implementation of an ontology for public health epidemiology. Poster presented at: BC Centre for Disease Control Research Week; November 17-21, 2014; Vancouver, Canada. (Download)
  15. Laird M, Bristow F, Chiu T, Courtot M, Dhillon B, Griffiths E, Langille M, Shay J, Whiteside M, Winsor G, Van Domselaar G, Hsiao W, and Brinkman F. Comparison and visualization of large datasets of microbial genomes. Poster presented at: Biological Data Science; November 5-8, 2014; Cold Spring Harbor, USA. (Download)
  16. Hsiao W, Bristow F, Matthews T, Adam J, Carriço JA, Courtot M, Dhillon B, Dooley D, Griffiths E, Isaac-Renton J, Keddy A, Kruczkiewicz P, Laird M, Petkau A, Schriml L, Shay J, Taboada E, Tang P, Winsor G, Beiko RG, Graham M, Van Domselaar G, The IRIDA Consortium, and Brinkman F. IRIDA: Canada’s federated platform for genomic epidemiology. Poster presented at: Genome Informatics 2014; September 21-24, 2014; Cambridge, UK. (Download)
  17. Bristow F, Matthews T, Adam J, Carriço JA, Courtot M, Dhillon B, Dooley D, Griffiths E, Isaac-Renton J, Keddy A, Kruczkiewicz P, Laird M, Petkau A, Schriml L, Shay J, Taboada E, Tang P, Winsor G, Beiko RG, Graham M, Van Domselaar G, Hsiao W, The IRIDA Consortium, and Brinkman F. IRIDA: Canada’s federated platform for genomic epidemiology. Poster presented at: The 7th Meeting of the Global Microbial Identifier; September 11-12, 2014; York, UK. (Download)
  18. Courtot M, Dooley D, Griffiths E, Adam J, Bristow F, Carriço JA, Dhillon B, Laird M, Matthews T, Petkau A, Silva M, Winsor G, The IRIDA Ontology Advisory Group, Schriml L, Van Domselaar G, Brinkman F, Hsiao W. Design and implementation of an ontology for public health epidemiology. Poster presented at: The 7th Meeting of the Global Microbial Identifier; September 11-12, 2014; York, UK. (Download)
  19. Dhillon B, Laird M, Shay J, Chiu T, Langille M, Reimer A, Knox N, Petkau A, Berry C, Brinkman F. IslandViewer and IslandPlot: genomic island identification and analysis with improved annotation and more flexible, dynamic visualization. Poster presented at: The 7th Meeting of the Global Microbial Identifier; September 11-12, 2014; York, UK. (Download)
  20. Petkau A, Keddy A, Slusky L, Mabon P, Bristow F, Matthews T, Adam J, Carriço JA, Katz LS, Reimer A, Knox N, Courtot M, Graham M, Hsiao W, Brinkman F, Beiko RG, Van Domselaar G. Outbreak investigation with IRIDA’s SNVPhyl pipeline and GenGIS. Poster presented at: The 7th Meeting of the Global Microbial Identifier; September 11-12, 2014; York, UK. (Download)
  21. Petkau A, Bristow F, Matthews T, Adam J, Dooley D, Griffiths E, Winsor G, Laird M, Courtot M, Hsiao W, Van Domselaar G, Brinkman F. Integration of Galaxy with IRIDA, a Genomic Epidemiology Platform. Poster presented at: The 2014 Galaxy Community Conference; June 30-July 2;Baltimore, MD, USA. (Download)

Selected publications related to the goals or outcomes of the IRIDA project.

  1. Ribeiro-Gonçalves B, Francisco AP, Vaz C, Ramirez M, Carriço JA. PHYLOViZ Online: web-based tool for visualization, phylogenetic inference, analysis and sharing of minimum spanning trees. Nucleic Acids Res. first published online April 29, 2016; doi: 10.1093/nar/gkw359 (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/04/29/nar.gkw359.long)
  2. Yoshida CE, Kruczkiewicz P,  Laing CR, Lingohr EJ, Gannon VPJ, Nash JHE, Taboada EN.  The Salmonella In Silico Typing Resource (SISTR): An Open Web-Accessible Tool for Rapidly Typing and Subtyping Draft Salmonella Genome Assemblies; PLOS One first published online January 22 2016; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147101  (http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0147101)
  3. Dooley, D., Petkau, A., Van Domselaar G., and Hsiao, W.  Sequence database versioning for command line and Galaxy bioinformatics servers. Bioinformatics. 2015. First published online: December 12, 2015 doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btv724 (http://bioinformatics.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/12/11/bioinformatics.btv724.full.pdf+html)
  4. Laird MR, Langille MG, Brinkman FS.  GenomeD3Plot: A library for rich, interactive visualizations of genomic data in web applications.  Bioinformatics. 2015 first published online June 20, 2015 doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btv376 (http://bioinformatics.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/07/13/bioinformatics.btv376.long)
  5. Dhillon, B.K., Laird, M.R., Shay, J.A., Winsor, G.L., Lo, R., Nizam, F., Pereira, S.K., Waglechner, N., McArthur A.G., Langille, M.G.I., and Brinkman, F.S.L. IslandViewer 3: more flexible, interactive genomic island discovery, visualization and analysis. Nucleic Acids Research. 2015 (Published online before press: doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv401, http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/04/27/nar.gkv401.full)
  6. Brinkman, F.S.L., Gardy,  J.L., and  Meulien  P.  Big Ideas, Big Data: How genomics will change our world. Policy Magazine (November-December 2014 issue) (http://policymagazine.ca/pdf/10/PolicyMagazineNovember-DecemberMeulienBrinkmanGardy-14.pdf)
  7. Vaz, C., Francisco, A.P., Silva, M., Jolley, K.A., Bray, J.E., Pouseele, H., Rothganger, J., Ramirez, M., and Carriço J.A.  TypOn: the microbial typing ontology.  Journal of Biomedical Semantics 2014, 5:43
    (http://www.jbiomedsem.com/content/5/1/43)
  8. Carlsten C, Brauer M, Brinkman F, Brook J, Daley D, McNagny K, Pui M, Royce D, Takaro T, Denburg J.  Genes, the environment and personalized medicine: We need to harness both environmental and genetic data to maximize personal and population health. EMBO Reports 2014 Jun 6. pii: e201438480. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.15252/embr.201438480/pdf)
  9. Didelot X, Gardy J, and Colijn C. Bayesian inference of infectious disease transmission from whole-genome sequence data. Mol Biol Evol. 2014 Apr. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24714079)
  10. Courtot M, Brinkman RR, and Ruttenberg A. The logic of surveillance guidelines: An analysis of vaccine adverse event reports from an ontological perspective. PLoS One. 2014 Mar; 9(3). (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0092632)
  11. Pesquita C, Ferreira J, Couto F, and Silva M. The epidemiology ontology: an ontology for the semantic annotation of epidemiological resources. J Biomed Semantics. 2014 Jan; 5(1):4. (http://www.jbiomedsem.com/content/5/1/4)
  12. Dhillon BK, Chiu TA, Laird MR, Langille MG, and Brinkman FS. IslandViewer update: Improved genomic island discovery and visualization. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Jul; 41(Web Server issue):W129-132. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23677610)
  13. Katz LS, Petkau A, Beaulaurier J, Tyler S, Antonova ES, Turnsek MA, Guo Y, Wang S, Paxinos EE, Orata F, Gladney LM, Stroika S, Folster JP, Rowe L, Freeman MM, Knox N, Frace M, Boncy J, Graham M, Hammer BK, Boucher Y, Bashir A, Hanage WP, Van Domselaar G, and Tarr CL. Evolutionary dynamics of Vibrio cholerae O1 following a single-source introduction to Haiti. mBio 2013 July; 4(4):e00398-13. (http://mbio.asm.org/content/4/4/e00398-13.abstract)
  14. Parks DH, Mankowski T, Zangooei S, Porter MS, Armanini DG, Baird DJ, Langille MG, and Beiko RG. GenGIS 2: geospatial analysis of traditional and genetic
    biodiversity, with new gradient algorithms and an extensible plugin framework. PLoS One. 2013 Jul;8(7):e69885. (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0069885)
  15. Smith SE, Showers-Corneli P, Dardenne CN, Harpending HH, Martin DP, Beiko RG. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic approaches to characterize the role of genetic recombination in mycobacterial evolution. PLoS One. 2012 Nov; 7(11):e50070. (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0050070)
  16. Gardy JL, Johnston JC, Ho Sui SJ, Cook VJ, Shah L, Brodkin E, Rempel S, Moore R, Zhao Y, Holt R, Varhol R, Birol I, Lem M, Sharma MK, Elwood K, Jones SJ, Brinkman FS, Brunham RC, and Tang P. Whole-genome sequencing and social-network analysis of a tuberculosis outbreak. N Engl J Med. 2011 Feb; 364(8):730-739. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21345102)
  17. Reimer AR, Van Domselaar G, Stroika S, Walker M, Kent H, Tarr C, Talkington D, Rowe L, Olsen-Rasmussen M, Frace M, Sammons S, Dahourou GA, Boncy J, Smith AM, Mabon P, Petkau A, Graham M, Gilmour MW, Gerner-Smidt P, and Vibrio cholerae Outbreak Genomics Task Force. Comparative genomics of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti, Asia, and Africa. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2011  November; 17(11):2113–2121. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22099115)
  18. MacDonald NJ, Beiko RG. Efficient learning of microbial genotype-phenotype association rules. Bioinformatics. 2010 Aug; 26(15):1834-40. (http://bioinformatics.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/15/1834.abstract)
  19. Petkau A, Stuart-Edwards M, Stothard P, and Van Domselaar G. Interactive microbial genome visualization with GView. Bioinformatics. 2010 October; 26(24): 3125-3126. (http://bioinformatics.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/24/3125)
  20. Brinkman R, Courtot M, Derom D, Fostel J, He Y, Lord P, Malone J, Parkinson H, Peters B, Rocca-Serra P, Ruttenberg A, Sansone SA, Soldatova LN, Stoekert CJ, Turner JA, Zheng J, and the OBI Consortium. Modeling biomedical experimental processes with OBI. J Biomed Semantics. 2010 June; 1(Suppl 1):S7. (http://www.jbiomedsem.com/content/1/S1/S7)
  21. Langille MG, Hsiao WW, and Brinkman FS. Detecting genomic islands using bioinformatics approaches. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010 May; 8(5):373-382. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20395967)
  22. Parks DH, Porter M, Churcher S, Wang S, Blouin C, Whalley J, Brooks S, Beiko RG. GenGIS: A geospatial information system for genomic data. Genome Res. 2009 Oct; 19(10):1896-904. (http://genome.cshlp.org/content/19/10/1896)